## Continuous Process and Bath Process

All **productive processes** can be classified according to how the **raw material input stage** is carried out, and how the product is subsequently obtained. These processes are basically divided into **continuous processes** and **batch processes**, although we can find variations combining features from both processes.

**Continuous process**. The incoming flow of raw material to the system is constant during the production cycle, being the product output constant as well.

**Batch process**. The total amount of raw material is introduced to the system at the beginning of the process, in such a way that the total outcoming product is obtained after a certain time.

In those processes requiring a heat input or output in the product, the **energy consumption** and the duration of the process is different whether it is carried out continuously or if it is done in batches.

In addition, the **type of process **determines the size of the required **heat exchanger**.

The following provides some of the common reasons why a batch process is selected instead of continuous process:

- The product to be processed, or the hot/cold service fluids, haven’t got a steady availability.
- A certain
**residence time**is required in the process, for example, in order to allow the stabilization of the properties of the product or to allow for developing chemical reactions. - The maintenance and / or cleaning tasks bring about a significant time.

Example. Let us suppose that a consumption of 10.000 kg/h of hot water at 85 ºC is required for a certain production process, whose duration is 30 minutes. For this purpose, mains water is available at 20ºC and steam is available at 4.5 barg (155ºC) as a heating medium. The heating is intended to be performed by means of a **tubular heat exchanger**.

## Continuous Process

The flow of **hot water** is fed constantly throughout the process.

* Figure 1. Diagram of a continuous process with a heat exchanger. *

The total **water consumption** will be 10.000 kg / h x 0.5 h = 5.000 kg.

The required **steam flow** at 4.5 barg, according to the **energy balance**, is 1.300 kg / h, which remains constant throughout the entire process.

- Therefore, the total
**steam consumption**is 1.300 kg / h x 0.5 h = 650 kg.

The **tubular heat exchanger** should be able to **heat** the **water flow** from 20 ° C up to 85 ° C, in an instantaneous process.

- Firstly, the designer must select a
**shell diameter**with a number of**inner tubes**suitable for the water flow. - The length of the tubes shall ensure a sufficient
**exchange area**, according to the equation Q = U x A x LMTD, in which Q is the**exchange power**, U is the**overall heat transfer coefficient**, A is the**exchange area**and LMTD is the average**logarithmic temperature** - For important
**temperature raises,**as in the current example (where the heating is performed from 20 ºC to 85 ºC), it is usual for the**heat exchanger**to require a large nominal length, as for instance, 3.000 mm.

## Bach Process

The** hot water mass** is supplied before the process begins.

*Figure 2. Diagram of a batch process with a heat exchanger. *

To carry out the **batch process**, a **vessel** will be required, having the capacity to store the total mass of water of 5.000 kg. Therefore, the total **water consumption** is the same as in continuous process. But there are differences with respect to the continuous process, as shown below:

- In a batch process, it takes a certain time t1 to store first the total mass of water at 20 ºC in the tank
- A certain time t2 is then required to heat that mass of water, from 20 ° C to 85 ° C. It will depend on the recirculation flow, which will not necessarily be the same than the consumption flow rate (10.000 kg / h in this example).
- The overall operation time for the batch process will result of adding the duration of the process (30 minutes in this example) plus these previous times: that is, t1 + t2 + 0.5 hours. However, in the continuous process, the total operating time matches with the duration of the process, 0.5 hours.

### Energy Balance

If we do the** energy balance**, the required steam flow at 4.5 barg is greater at the beginning of the recirculation, when the water is cooler (at 20 ° C at the start), and it is lower and lower at each step or increment as the water in the tank warms up.

- Given that a maximum
**heating time**t2 of 1 hour is established and a**recirculation flow rate**of 7.500 kg / h is selected: in this example, to heat 5.000 kg of water from 20 ºC to 85 ºC, 700 kg / h of steam at the beginning of the recirculation, and 410 kg / h at the end. - Although the decrease in
**steam flow**over the process is**not a linear reduction**, the total consumption can be approximated as the average value of the initial and final consumption: ½ x (700 kg / h + 410 kg / h) x 1 h = 555 kg. In contrast with a continuous process, the reduction of**steam consumption**is important, 14.6%: 555 kg instead of 650 kg.

Unlike the continuous process, the **tubular heat exchanger **in batch is not required to raise the entire temperature difference from 20 ºC to 85 ºC instantaneously, but it will perform partial temperature rises instead, getting these increments smaller and smaller, until completing the **heating process**.

- In general, if we keep the same
**shell diameter**and the same number of**inner tubes**as in the continuous process, the nominal length of the**heat exchanger**for the batch process will be notably lower. - It is common for the batch process to require a heat exchanger of 1.500 mm of nominal length (half of that for the continuous process in this example), resulting in a lower cost.

**SACOME** has a range of standard **shell and tube heat exchangers **of 1.500 mm of nominal length, our **V SERIES**, for **water heating** and **cooling applications**.

#### Technical documentation with regard to our tubular heat exchangers

### Analysis of the thermal properties of fluids

The starting point in the design of any heat exchange system is the definition of how the thermal properties evolve throughout the process, whether heating or cooling.

### Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Frequently Asked Questions

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers frequently asked questions with regard to the engineering, design and manufacture of our heat exchangers.

### Heat Exchanger Calculation

The critical issue when designing the heat exchanger is the determining of the thermal exchange coefficients reliably and accurately.